Friday, March 13, 2020
Victims of mass hysteria essays Hysteria is defined as behavior exhibiting overwhelming or unmanageable fear or emotional excess. These feelings shared by the masses causes much chaos and many people to get hurt. Throughout the years, starting in 1692 with the Salem Witch Trials through to the 20th century with the Robert Roberson Case, there have been many instances of this mass hysteria all containing similarities and differences between them. The similarity between all these cases is that no matter where the accusations took place throughout the country, all people persecuted by mass hysteria, were done so because they were different in some way. During the Salem Witch Trails people were persecuted because the other towns people believed they did not follow their god. Between 1942 and 1946 more than 120,000 Japanese natives living in the United States were placed in internment camps because a country they no longer lived in had attacked Pearl Harbor. During the McCarthy Hearings in 1954 people were blamed for not being American enough because they had different beliefs about the society they lived in. In the Robert Roberson Case a pastor and his wife were persecuted because they were accused of sexual abuse without being tried for it. All of these accused people caused change to the normalcy of the general public and because of it they were scrutinized and treated poorly. The victims of mass hysteria all had their reputations completely ruined, and every society they lived in never saw these people as they had before any accusations had ever been made. The differences in the cases are not as broad as the similarities. Although these people were persecuted because they were different they were all persecuted because of different specific reasons. In the Salem Which Trials, twenty villagers were hanged and killed because they would not lie and say they did dealings with the devil. No other group was largely and publicly punished for thei...
Wednesday, February 26, 2020
Rising caesarean section rates in the developed world- what needs to be done - Scholarship Essay Example These include: maternal health, age, education, marital status, ethnic background and socio-economic perspectives. Women in the developed world are generally career oriented, and therefore, usually delay child birth. Thus the age and the health factors have impeded the natural process of giving birth in such women. Elective C-section is also opted for by such women because they find it easier to get an appointment for a C-section rather than waiting for their water to break, or for the labour to begin unexpectedly. The fear of labour pains forces many women to choose elective C-section. Education of pregnant women is essential, so as to encourage them to go through the natural process of child birth. Media can play an important role in advocating vaginal birth and in preventing unnecessary C-sections in the developed world. The socio-economic factor of the women in the developed world is pushing the rates even higher. The cost of a C-section is higher than a vaginal delivery- no wonder how private hospitals pay hefty fees to their surgeons! Insurance coverage is a compelling factor for the physicians to opt for C-section because the majority of the litigation cases are based on the claim that a timely C-section was not performed. The health insurance policies in the developed countries deal strictly with cases of head injuries or cerebral palsy that may occur during vaginal birth. Ã¢â¬ËBut fear of malpractice and complications on the part of physicians also has increased the use caesareans unnecessarily, Flamm says. On average, 90% of breach-babies are delivered by C-section, as are half of twins. C-section rates also are higher among women with any history of sexually transmitted disease. But the single greatest factor in rising rates, Flamm says, is fear of malpractice suits.Ã¢â¬â¢ (Lowers, 37) The rise in the C-section rates in the developed world has become a cause of concern. To a certain extent, abdominal birth, or C-section birth is taking over the
Sunday, February 9, 2020
The History of Banking in the United States - Research Paper Example At its core, a bank, no matter at what place in history or where it is located, does the same thing: it deals with taking in, recording, and giving out money. It is ironic to note that, upon the celebration of the United States of America gaining their independence from England, there was no bank in existence in the former colonies. As colonies of England, they had fallen under the Bank of England, and used the British forms of money, as their legal tender (Rothbard 47). Far more common, however, was trade in the form of barter of items, such as beaver fur and wampum, as well as tobacco and rice (Rothbard 48). Called Ã¢â¬Å"commodity moneyÃ¢â¬ , it served the needs of the colonists during trade with each other, especially in outlying rural areas; however, an actual legal tender was needed, it was found, when trading in cities or in a foreign market with other countries. Thus the newly-formed states were forced to bring in money from other countries to act as their own currency; before long, Spanish doubloons competed alongside French, Portuguese, and Brazilian coins for tender (Rothbard 49). This controversy was solved when, in 1781, the Bank of North America was founded by Roger Morris in Philadelphia (Foster 176). As the first bank established on the new soil, its primary aim was to finance the American Revolution, as well as economize the use of cash. Its primary aim was to do this by using the money that it was paid by depositors as loans to others, often at two or three times the amount of cash on hand (Foster 176). It succeeded admirably in both areas, making loans to not only the government but private citizens, and was quickly followed by more banks. To stay out of the limelight of the raging debate of whether or not Congress had the power, under the Articles of Confederation, it procured a charter from the State of Pennsylvania, which was continuously renewed until the bank entered the national banking system (Foster 178). This bank was quickly followed by other banks, including the Bank of Massachusetts, established in 1784, the Bank of New York, also founded i n 1784, and the Bank of the Manhattan Company, founded by Aaron Burr under the disguise of a company that was to supply pure water to New York City (Foster 179). While all of this was going on, a debate was raging in the new Congress. Alexander Hamilton, Secretary of the Treasury, called for a national bank, stating it was needed to manage the government money and to regulate the credit of the nation (Johnson 7). Thomas Jefferson argued that there was no provision for a national bank in the U.S. Constitution, therefore it was not within the power of Congress to create one (Johnson 7). Hamilton, after lengthy discussions on the fact that the new government had created fiscal powers in the past, and therefore owed it to the people to exercise some control over them, won the argument and the First Bank of the United States was
Thursday, January 30, 2020
Hopeless Free Will Essay The question of what it means to be human has been asked by not only famous philosophers of old, but by anyone who struggles to define what it means. Ishiguro conveys this very same question in his novel Never Let Me Go. Ishiguro demonstrates that in spite of the shared physical qualities of humans, the students undeniably have lives unprotected of human virtues like free will and a hope for change. Regardless of their forfeited human virtues and the questions of morality surrounding their existence, the students are designed for a specific purpose, to be organ donors. To be human, most would suggest one must possess a mind, heart and will. The mind of humans allow for rational thoughts, not instincts like animals. The heart allows a human to feel the consciousness of the human experience, unlike a robot or other forms of artificial intelligence. The will endows a human to make decisions or choices that have either constructive or adverse consequences. In this capacity for action, one can select Ã¢â¬Å"thisÃ¢â¬ over Ã¢â¬Å"thatÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"thoseÃ¢â¬ instead of Ã¢â¬Å"theseÃ¢â¬ . Unfortunately, the students have no free will to choose Ã¢â¬Å"thisÃ¢â¬ over Ã¢â¬Å"thatÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"thoseÃ¢â¬ over Ã¢â¬Å"theseÃ¢â¬ in regards to their lives and how to live it, despite possessing the human characteristics of a mind, heart and will. Their destinies were chosen for them long before air filled their human lungs. It is a life well-ordered with a specific purpose independent of their will or wishes. The inherent freedom of choice most humans have was never fully given to the students, except to choose a sex partner. Their willingness to accept, without question, the rules surrounding their lives starts at Hailsham and continues throughout the novel. For example, while at Hailsham they are told by the guardians not to leave school grounds and to stay healthy, they do not know why and never questions anyone as to why. Leona Toker and Daniel Chertoff write, Ã¢â¬Å"Indeed, they appear to be incapable of thinking outside of the system in general; they do not ask the basic eschatological questions typical of adolescentsÃ¢â¬ (166). Ishiguro clearly demonstrates how fate is the dominant force in the lives of the students, and a life void of free will is their destiny when Miss Emily states, Ã¢â¬Å"your life must now run the course thatÃ¢â¬â¢s been set for itÃ¢â¬ (Ishiguro 266). To be human means one is capable to hope and dream, to adjust and change, to love and learn. Hope promotes the belief in a good outcome related to events and circumstances in ones life. The students have the abilities to do these things but without any benefit or reward. Their sense of hope comes from falsehoods and misbeliefs. This misguided hope encourages Ruth to seek out information about Madame in hopes that Kathy and Tommy would receive a deferral. The illusive hope of the make-believe deferral program is what drives Tommy to begin drawing again, and motivates Kathy and Tommy to visit Madame. In spite of the unrewarding efforts of the students, their ability to hope is a fundamental response genetically programmed in humans. Tail Sharot writes, Ã¢â¬Å"A growing body of scientific evidence points to the conclusion that optimism (hope) may be hardwired by evolution into the human brainÃ¢â¬ (1). The students like all humans hope for change in their lives. Regrettably, their hopes would never get an opportunity to become reality, because the overseers of their lives never consider them human. Miss Emily emphasizes this point with the declaration, Ã¢â¬Å"So for a long time you were kept in the shadows, and people did their best not to think about you. And if they did, they tried to convince themselves you werenÃ¢â¬â¢t really like us. That you were less than humanÃ¢â¬ (Ishiguro 263). Beyond the dystopian story of Never Let Me Go, a fundamental theme is apparent: free will and the certainties of hopes are absent in lives of the students. As humans our decisions are independent of nature and nurture than any animals; we are aware of our ability to think, to choose and to hope and dream. The students possesses all attributes that makes one humans except for the confidence of having a choice or hope for a future free of being considered Ã¢â¬Å"poor creaturesÃ¢â¬ . Works Cited Ishiguro, Kazuo. Never Let Me Go. New York: Vintage Books, 2005. Print. Leona Toker, Daniel Chertoff. Reader Respone and the Recycling of Topoi in Kazua Ishiguros Never Let Me Go. Partial Answers: Journal of Literature and the History of Ideas 6. 1 (2008): 163-180. Sharot, Tali. The Optimisim Bias. Time 28 May 2011: 28. Print.
Wednesday, January 22, 2020
Society and Family Conflict in A Raisin in the Sun by Lorraine Hansberry Ã Ã Ã Ã Within the context of any given moment in history, the passage of time allows reflection on the attitudes and emotions of people. The political atmosphere, commercial fads, social trends or religious fervor of the time we observe, all lend spice to the attitudes that we will find there. Some aspects of our human nature are as timeless as eating or sleeping, such as the bonds of a family or the conflicts which tear them apart. In Lorraine Hansberry's work "A Raisin in the Sun" we can see clearly not only the drama each of us lives through in the ties of family and love, but it gives us an immortal slice of history of the times in which it was written. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Much of the political action that occurred during the time described within this play is specific to the era which it portrays. In Chicago and elsewhere, the economic affliction of minority families was ... ... Carlisle, David K. 1998. Black Combat Units In Korean War Action. [Online] Available:Ã http://members.aol.com/warlib/dkc2.htm [2000, June 12]. Hansberry, Lorraine. "A Raisin in the Sun". Beatty, J., Hunter, J. P. (Eds.)(1998) Norton Introduction to Literature (7th Ed.). New York: Norton (pp.Ã 1381-1485). MSN Microsoft Network. Encarta. W.E.B. DuBois. [Online] Available: http://encarta.msn.com/index/conciseindex/2E/02E91000.htm?z=1&pg=2&br=1 [2000, June 11]. Ã
Tuesday, January 14, 2020
EasyCar is one of the companies under the easyGroup brand name created by Stelios Haji-Ioannou. It is the fastest growing car rental company in Europe because it offers value for money. This is achieved by simplifying the car, and passing on the benefits to the customer in the form of a lower price. This low cost car rental idea is not for every consumer. Since the market is segmented into business and leisure travelers easyCar tries to focus all of its efforts to the price sensitive leisure segment. It has taken them two years for easyCar to break even, and Stelios intends to quadruple its sales in the next two years. Swot Analysis: Strengths: Leverage on established brand reputation of easyJet (by easyGroup): EasyCar is a member of the easyGroup brand which first developed the easyJet air carrier. The other companies under the easyGroup umbrella mimic the low cost, no frills business strategy. This business model has been quite successful in the rental car industry, has a presence in the internet cafÃ © industry, and easyCinema is expected to be launched soon. Competency of Stellos: Stelios Haji-Ioannou is an entrepreneur who founded easyJet, and has been expanding the easyGroup brand. Stelios is described as a flamboyant entrepreneur who has been aggressive in expanding his brand into many different industries that fit his low cost, no frills business model. StellosÃ¢â¬â¢ excellence is a direct reason of how easyJet broke even after two years of operations. No agent (disintermediation): EasyCar has been able to maximize the amount of revenue they receive because they deal with the majority of the bookings themselves. For other rental car companies ninety percent of their bookings are made by agents (intermediaries), and these agents require a portion of their sales. EasyCar manages 100% of its rentals so it is able to gain the maximum amount of revenue. 90% utilization of assets: There are three main strategies that easyCar utilizes to gain the highest utilization rate out of the major car rental companies. Firstly, their information system evaluates projected demand, and expected utilization quite accurately, and adjusts price accordingly. Secondly, they only offer one car type on each lot. The customers know that and they will automatically be matched to any car in the fleet. This removes the risk of decreased utilization as a result of customer picking certain cars over others. Finally, they offer demand based pricing. This ensures that for any given demand the maximum number of cars are rented out. Weaknesses: Only one type of car: Having one type of car can also be seen as a negative to customers because it offers them no choice. If customers value selection and quality over price then they will not rent from easyCar. Process of car picking up is time consuming for customers, given the low staffing levels: When a customer wants to pick up a car they usually have to wait between a half hour and an hour at the lot to finally pick up their car. This inhibits the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s ability to sell more in a day, and the customers become dissatisfied from waiting. Public relations issues regarding its policies: The Office of Fair Trading has passed legislation stating that easyCar has to grant customers seven days form the time they made a booking to cancel it and receive a full refund. The company is scared that this process will inhibit their plans for a 2004 IPO. They have also received bad press from their clean car policy. The company requires the car to be fully cleaned when returned, and itÃ¢â¬â¢s very strict regarding this policy. They have received some bad press, but 85% of their fleet are returned with an acceptable amount of cleanliness. Finally, there are many additional charges that are explained in the fine print. When easyCar first opened they received a lot of bad press because they didnÃ¢â¬â¢t explain their costs clearly. Recently they have been trying to make their charges more transparent to the customer. Opportunities: Expand into other European markets: Experts of the car rental industry feel that Europe is Ã¢â¬Å"ripe for consolidation.Ã¢â¬ This is significant since it will allow easyCar to work together in different countries across Europe and further strengthen its brand. Broaden the fleet size to offer customers more choices: To further expand easyCars market share they could offer more selection. Customers value choice, but this is only realistically possible if the prices remain low. Further develop the one hour car rental service provider: To compete with local transportation like buses and cabs they can target citizens of each city who only want to rent a car for an hour or a short amount of time to complete less time consuming tasks. Threats: Legal Challenges: If the company is unable to amend the seven day full refund law than there could be serious consequences. The utilization rate would be expected to fall from 90% to 65%, and it could also delay their expected 2004 IPO. There is also legal criticism with the posting of peoples faces on the website who have overdue cars. Competition: There are several internationally recognized car rental companies, and domestic companies that easyCar competes with. For example, domestic or national companies usually account for 50% of their countryÃ¢â¬â¢s sales. New low cost companies are going to be popping up since they have seen the success of easyCar, thus easyCar needs to widen its gap between its competitors.
Monday, January 6, 2020
Mongolia is high, cold, and dry. It has an extreme continental climate with long, cold winters and short summers, during which most precipitation falls. The country averages 257 cloudless days a year, and it is usually at the center of a region of high atmospheric pressure. Precipitation is highest in the north, which averages 20 to 35 centimeters per year, and lowest in the south, which receives 10 to 20 centimeters (see fig. 5). The extreme south is the Gobi, some regions of which receive no precipitation at all in most years. The name Gobi is a Mongol meaning desert, depression, salt marsh, or steppe, but which usually refers to a category of arid rangeland with insufficient vegetation to support marmots but with enough to support camels. Mongols distinguish gobi from desert proper, although the distinction is not always apparent to outsiders unfamiliar with the Mongolian landscape. Gobi rangelands are fragile and are easily destroyed by overgrazing, which results in expansion of the true desert, a stony waste where not even Bactrian camels can survive.br/>Average temperatures over most of the country are below freezing from November through March and are about freezing in April and October. January and February averages of -20Ã ° C are common, with winter nights of -40Ã ° C occurring most years. Summer extremes reach as high as 38Ã ° C in the southern Gobi region and 33Ã ° C in Ulaanbaatar. More than half the country is covered by permafrost, which makes construction, road building, and mining difficult. All rivers and freshwater lakes freeze over in the winter, and smaller streams commonly freeze to the bottom. Ulaanbaatar lies at 1,351 meters above sea level in the valley of the Tuul Gol, a river. Located in the relatively well-watered north, it receives an annual average of 31 centimeters of precipitation, almost all of which falls in July and in August. Ulaanbaatar has an average annual temperature of -2.9Ã °C and a frost-free period extending on t he average from mid-June to late August.Mongolias weather is characterized by extreme variability and short-term unpredictability in the summer, and the multiyear averages conceal wide variations in precipitation, dates of frosts, and occurrences of blizzards and spring dust storms. Such weather poses severe challenges to human and livestock survival. Official statistics list less than 1 percent of the country as arable, 8 to 10 percent as forest, and the rest as pasture or desert. Grain, mostly wheat, is grown in the valleys of the Selenge River system in the north, but yields fluctuate widely and unpredictably as a result of the amount and the timing of rain and the dates of killing frosts. Although winters are generally cold and clear, there are occasional blizzards that do not deposit much snow but cover the grasses with enough snow and ice to make grazing impossible, killing off tens of thousands of sheep or cattle. Such losses of livestock, which are an inevitable and, in a se nse, normal consequence of the climate, have made it difficult for planned increases in livestock numbers to be achieved. Source USSR, Council of Ministers, Main Administration of Geodesy and Cartography, Mongolskaia Narodnaia Respublika, spravochnaia karta (Mongolian Peoples Republic, Reference Map), Moscow, 1975.